We travel more and more abroad, either because of our jobs or when vacationing. The sooner you are prepared, the better. If you are visiting countries where there is a high risk of infection, you should always get the appropriate inoculations. Some vaccines must be taken up to 4 weeks before traveling. The recommendations below are based on guidelines from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health (FHI), the World Health Organization (WHO) and Center for Disease Control (CDC).
About our recommendations
Our recommendations are dependent on the type of travel, local geographical conditions and seasonal variations affecting the prevalence of the disease. One must also review the travelers general health, age and previous vaccinations.
Diphteria, Tetanus, Pertussis and Polio
The Norwegian Institute of Public Health recommends refreshing your vaccine agaist diphteria, tetanus, pertussis and polio every 10th year, no matter if you are traveling or not.
Recommended for travelers to medium to high risk areas that may engage in unprotected sex, injection of drugs, accidents or thay may come into contact with the health care system.
Children must also be reviewed for inoculations during longer stays due to the risk of getting infected by other children, for example during play.
Medium risk areas: 2 – 8 % of the population are carriers
High risk areas: > 8 %
Some countries require a yellow fever certificate for all travelers and it may become necessary to get this vaccine when traveling to countries at risk. Many countries also require a yellow fever certificate for travelers from countries at risk.
Persons traveling to areas where there is, or has been, an epidemic of a group C type disease.
It is recommended to get meningococcus ACWY vaccine for “the meningococcus belt” and large parts of tropical Africa. The recommendation is first and foremost directed at children and adolescents under 25 years of age and persons staying abroad for extended periods. The vaccine should however also be considered for adults during shorter stays, depending on the epidemiological situation. The vaccine is mandatory for pilgrims traveling to Saudi Arabia.
The vaccine against Japanese encephalitis is recommended for persons planning to stay outside major urban areas for 3 to 4 weeks or more in areas where the sickness is commonly found. Inoculation should also be considered for shorter stays if the local conditions indicate that the risk of infection is elevated. The vaccine can be administered to persons 2 months or older.
The vaccine against typhoid fever is recommended for travelers to areas where typhoid fever is endemic. The risk of infection increases with the length of the stay and is at its highest when interacting with the local population. The vaccine is also recommended for travelers enjoying extended stays in most countries outside Western Europe, particulary Africa, South America and Asia – particulary when traveling outside typical tourist spots, like the countryside and rural areas.
Recommended for travelers staying or vacationing in areas where rabies is prevalent and medicinal treatment is not immediately available – also for persons working with animals regularly. Children are especially vulnerable to contact with infectious animals without parents knowing, therefore, the vaccine should be considered for children staying in affected areas.
The vaccine for rotavirus can be administered for prophylactic effect in children and should be considered for persons enjoying extended stays in countries where the virus is prevalent. The vaccines can be given to children 6 weeks of age. It should not be administered to older children – over 32 weeks.
Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE)
The vaccine for tick-borne encephalitis is recommended for persons traveling or staying in forests where there is risk of infection. The risk of infection can vary greatly in small areas. It is therefore recommended to consult with locals before traveling.
ETEC (travelers’ diarrhea)
Oral vaccine agaimst cholera offers some protection against infection with enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). The degree of protection is about 60 % and has a documented effect for about 3 months. About half of all cases of travelers’ diarrhea is caused by ETEC. The degree of protection is so low that governmental health agencies no longer recommend the vaccine for this indication.
The influenza vaccine is recommended for persons 65 years or older and for persons with chronic diseases.
The vaccine against pneumococcus is recommended for persons 65 years or older and for persons with chronic diseases.